multiple choice organizational behaviour
16. Which statement best summarizes the fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement?
a. a fixed number of responses occur before reinforcement
b. reinforcement follows every response
c. reinforcement follow periodically
d. a response occurs after a specific period of time
17. What is an example of fixed interval?
a. a promotion is based on seniority when the space becomes available
b. a salary is given every two weeks for continued performance
c. a salesperson is rewarded with a sale after a number of phone calls
d. a bonus is given for every 50 trees planted
18. You supervise a group of outside sales representatives and want to produce the highest level of sales performance. Which reinforcement schedule should you adopt?
b. variable interval
d. fixed interval
19. What is used when a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs?
a. fixed ratio schedule
b. variable interval schedule
c. fixed interval schedule
d. variable ratio schedule
20. Which of the following best summarizes Bandura’s theory of social learning?
a. task-specific self-efficacy
c. continuous reinforcement
d. needs hierarchy
21. What belief is the basis of the social learning theory?
a. Learning is strongly connected to need-based drives.
b. Learning occurs through observing other people and modelling their behaviour.
c. Learning occurs because of behavioural consequences.
d. Learning occurs based on group norms.
22. What is a defining characteristic for the development of self-efficacy?
a. the individual must pick easier tasks in order to become more successful
b. the individual must succeed at a challenging task
c. the individual must develop a strong internal source of control
d. the individual must develop a high degree of self-monitoring
23. What is the term for an individual’s beliefs and expectations about his or her ability to successfully accomplish a specific task?
d. self-monitoring behaviour
24. What is NOT considered one of the four sources of task-specific self-efficacy critical to Bandura’s social learning theory?
a. prior experiences
b. behaviour models
c. assessment of current physical and emotional capabilities
d. intelligence quotient
25. Which of the following is an implication for an intuitor personality preference?
a. interpersonal involvement
b. empirical data
c. practical applications
d. theoretical frameworks
26. Which personality prefers decision making as well as interpersonal involvement?
27. According to the text, what is General Electric well known for?
a. talent management
b. excellent management skills
c. performance management
28. An employee is asked to reconstruct his actions while working on a project and identify what worked well. What is occurring?
a. after-events review
b. corrective action
c. performance management
d. 360-degree feedback
29. Corrine’s performance was measured and assessed during her first year at the company. What occurred?
a. performance appraisal
b. performance management
c. management by objectives
d. a control system
30. Military staff are put through a variety of scenarios, in a safe environment, and where errors are likely to occur. What type of learning is taking place?
a. self-regulation prompting
b. after-events review
c. error management training
d. social learning theory
31. What is the first step in the performance measurement process?
a. measuring performance
b. assessing the impact of performance behaviours
c. defining performance in behavioural terms
d. rewarding positive performance behaviours
32. Suppose a medical doctor’s performance is evaluated on interpersonal skills to complement necessary technical diagnostic and treatment skills. What characteristic of performance does this reflect?
a. need to be specific in setting goals
b. importance of setting difficult but achievable goals
c. multidimensional nature of performance in most work settings
d. qualitative and quantitative dimensions of performance
33. What is the difference between “the what” and “how” of goal setting?
a. input as compared to output equity perceptions in the goal setting process
b. clearly stated and consistent goal compared to the pathway to lead to the goal
c. a clear and consistent pathway compared to a clear, consistent and measureable goal
d. applicable to all employees as compared to multiple pathways
34. What is characteristic of a work goal?
b. reasonable deadlines
c. gain-sharing responsibility
d. qualitative perspective
35. As a supervisor, you want to enhance the performance of your employees. What method do you choose?
a. allowing them to participate in goal setting
b. closely controlling their behaviour
c. setting their goals
d. giving them hard goals
36. Which statement best summarizes a key element in performance management?
a. It is important that quantifiable behaviours are measured.
b. It is important that all important behaviours are measured.
c. It is important that qualitative behaviours are measured.
d. It is important that employees are aware of the goals assigned.
37. What is a prerequisite for successful goal-setting programs, such as management by objectives (MBO)?
a. supervisory goal commitment
b. a relatively benign or stable environment
c. the connection between goals/outcomes/rewards
d. organizational commitment
38. Which type of employee would most likely find it acceptable to be monitored electronically?
a. one who is unclear of their task and role within the organization
b. one who has a strong commitment and identification with the organization
c. one who desires simplified supervision and independence
d. one who desires a minimal performance evaluations by his/her supervisor
39. As a supervisor, you want to reduce the stress associated with work within your employees’ goal-setting guidelines. What do you do?
a. Apply a personality test to better match fit.
b. Identify the goal(s) clearly or specifically.
c. Clarify task-role expectations.
d. Tie rewards more closely to outcomes.
40. Who originated the goal-setting and performance-planning program called management by objectives (MBO)?
a. Albert Bandura
b. Peter Drucker
c. J. Willard Marriott
d. B.F. Skinner
41. Which of the following best summarizes management by objectives (MBO)?
a. facilitating interaction for setting goals, evaluating performance, and tracking progress
b. formulating corporate strategy and objectives
c. exerting superior control of subordinate behaviour
d. setting objectives for employees and following up
42. What is the key component of the MBO?
b. company mission
c. company vision
d. job description
43. In what type of environment are goal-setting programs easiest to implement?
44. Suppose two supervisors evaluated an employee’s performance using the same set of rating scales but arrived at different conclusions or results. What does this suggest about the evaluation instrument?
a. It is invalid.
b. It is sufficient.
c. It is unreliable.
d. It is unbiased.
45. What best exemplifies appropriate feedback to an employee that will lead to increased job performance?
b. provided in written form only
c. constructive and specific
46. What is the most common reason for employees not making good use of feedback?
a. They are experiencing times of stress.
b. They have a low level of agreement with supervisory evaluations.
c. They have been shown to have no relationship to improving job performance.
d. They decrease commitment to organizational goals.
47. How can 360-degree feedback be improved?
a. the addition of a full picture of an individual’s performance
b. the addition of a self-reflection component
c. the addition of a systematic coaching component
d. the addition of performance review by superiors, peers, followers, and customers
48. What type of behaviour is required to achieve active engagement by an employee during performance appraisal?
a. determining peer-competitive goals
b. demonstrating vulnerability and openness to challenges
c. being passive and compliant
d. challenging the supervisor’s ideas about future development
49. Which employees improve greatly using 360-degree feedback?
a. top achievers
b. low achievers
c. those who often receive positive feedback
d. those who overrate themselves
50. FedEx has used multiple methods of performance is a more novel, non-traditional method?
a. direct measures of performance (e.g., number of boxes loaded per eight-hour shift)
b. employee evaluation of supervisors through a survey-feedback-action-system
c. supervisor ratings of employees
d. subjective peer ratings
51. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of
a. self-correcting behaviour
52. What can be done to ensure reliability in a performance appraisal system?
a. appraising the appropriate dimensions of performance
b. capturing evaluations from multiple sources and at different times over the course of the evaluation period
c. ensuring that employees clearly understand what dimensions are being evaluated
d. measuring the dimensions of performance in a valid way
53. Which type of pay for performance is preferred by individuals who have a high need for achievement?
a. non-specific performance plan
b. individual incentive plan
c. group performance plan
d. incentive plan
54. What type of decision is synonymous with reward allocation?
a. simultaneous decisions about when to reward people
b. sequential decisions about which outcomes will be rewarded
c. simultaneous decisions about individual perceptions and reward levels
d. sequential decisions about whom to reward and how and when to reward them
55. Which statement summarizes the relationship between entitlement and work?
a. The power of entitlement to rewards rests on a direct link between performance and rewards.
b. The concept of entitlement is not different from the meaning of earning.
c. Earning engenders passive, irresponsible behaviour.
d. Merit raises in some organizations have come to be viewed as entitlements and this has resulted in a reduction of their positive value.
56. You are the manager of a men’s clothing department in a large department store. Thirteen sales associates report to you; all of them are experienced. Within the past week, two customers have complained about Ellen, a sales associate in the tie and fragrance section. No other complaints have been received concerning other sales associates. Ellen had never received complaints when she worked in other sections. Ellen has worked in the tie and fragrance section only one other time and that was only for a few days. What must the supervisor consider before jumping to a premature conclusion that Ellen is solely to blame?
a. the reliability of the information as well as ensuring important aspects of performance are not overlooked
b. the rate of pay Ellen was receiving and the rate others were receiving
c. the consensus about Ellen’s current performance
d. the customer distinctiveness and the accuracy of the information
57. What is the difference between mentoring and tri-mentoring?
a. In mentoring, a senior employee guides a junior employee, while more mentors are involved in tri-mentoring.
b. Traditional mentoring is proven to be much more successful in performance improvement than tri-mentoring.
c. Mentoring relates to unresolvable issues, while tri-mentoring is reactive mentoring.
d. Mentoring involves external attributions for poor performance while tri-mentoring involves internal attributions.
58. A supervisor determined a reason for poor employee performance prior to speaking with the employee. What behaviour is the supervisor engaging?
a. electronic performance monitoring
b. recency effect
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self-evaluation of the employee
59. What is an important aspect of a mentoring relationship?
a. coaching and counselling
b. peer feedback
c. disciplining the subordinate
d. formal training