15 multiple choice Organizational Behavior (OB)
1. Who is the founder of operant conditioning?
2. Which statement best summarizes how learning applies to the work environment?
a. Learning is primarily ad hoc and accidental.
b. Learning is primarily a change in behaviour acquired through experience and knowledge.
c. Learning is primarily a cognitive activity.
d. Learning is primarily acquired through formal training programs.
3. Ernie has not met his sales targets for several months and as a result is moved to a new store in an area that is far from his home. He now needs to drive to work rather than walk, his preferred method. What does this example illustrate?
a. negative reinforcement
b. positive reinforcement
4. Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning?
a. expectancy theory
b. reinforcement theory
d. Maslow’s needs
5. What is the process of modifying behaviour through positive or negative consequences following specific behaviours?
a. Pavlovian conditioning
b. classical conditioning
c. integrated model of conditioning
d. operant conditioning
6. Which of the following could be an outcome of punishment?
a. job recognition
b. job security
c. job promotion
d. job demotion
7. What schedule of reinforcement produces a high rate of response that is vigorous, steady, and resistant to extinction?
b. fixed interval
8. Which of the following is a positive consequence under operant conditioning?
a. money-based reinforcement
b. performance feedback
c. routine pay for performance
d. social recognition
9. Which statement indicates the difference between reinforcement and punishment?
a. Reinforcement is positive while punishment is negative.
b. Reinforcement can be negative while punishment can be positive.
c. Reinforcement applies to extinction while punishment applies to behaviour.
d. Reinforcement is continuous while punishment is intermittent.
10. A manager reduces an employee’s pay when the employee comes to work late and refrains from doing so when the employee is on time. What has the manager done?
a. used extinction to reduce undesirable behaviour
b. used intermittent reinforcement
c. positively reinforced the employee’s on-time behaviour
d. negatively reinforced the employee’s on-time behaviour
11. At work, you do not respond to a co-worker’s sarcastic comments but do compliment the sarcastic colleague for constructive comments. What approaches are you using?
a. positive and negative consequences
b. positive consequences
c. extinction and positive reinforcement
d. extinction and negative reinforcement
12. As a supervisor you decide to use positive reinforcement to increase the probability that desired job performance will be repeated. What is NOT appropriate for use as positive reinforcement?
a. providing no response or feedback when an employee fails to complete a task on time
b. increasing an employee’s salary after evaluation
c. giving an employee a promotion after several outstanding performance reviews
d. allowing an employee to go home early but providing full pay
13. What is a non-response approach that weakens behaviour?
a. negative reinforcement
c. intermittent reinforcement
14. One of your employees periodically fails to clean up his work area at the end of his work shift. Instead of issuing punishment or discipline, you decide to try an extinction approach to the situation. What would you do?
a. Fire the worker.
b. Ignore the program for a while.
c. Clean up the area yourself.
d. Reassign the worker to a less desirable job.
15. John was given the opportunity to make a highly visible presentation to the board of directors as a reward for his exceptional job performance. However, John was extremely nervous about the presentation. How did John view the opportunity?
a. as extinction
b. as a positive reinforcement
c. as a negative reinforcement
d. as punishment